Chowrasta meaning of colors
George Town, Penang - George Town, Penang
| Penang Island City |
Bandaraya Pulau Pinang
|Other transcription (s)|
|• Yes how||جورج تاون|
|• Chinese|| 乔治 市 (simplified) |
喬治 市 (traditional)
|• Hokkien|| 坡底 / 喬治 市 |
Pho-té / Kiâu-tī-tshī (Tâi-lô)
|• Tamil|| ஜோர்ஜ் டவுன் |
Jōrj ṭavuṉ (Transliteration)
| Motto (s): |
Lead who we serve
(Malay: Memimpin Sambil Berkhidmat )
|Coordinates: 05 ° 24'52 "N 100 ° 19'45" E /. 5.41444 ° N, 100.32917 ° E. / 5.41444; 100.32917 Coordinates: 05 ° 24'52 "N 100 ° 19'45" E. /. 5.41444 ° N, 100.32917 ° E. / 5.41444; 100.32917|
|Founded||August 11, 1786|
|British Crown Colony||April 1, 1867 - August 31, 1957|
|Japanese occupation||December 19, 1941 - September 3, 1945|
|City status||January 1, 1957|
|• Local government||Penang Island City Council|
|• Mayor||Yew Tung Seang|
|• City and state capital||305.77 km 2 (118.06 square miles)|
|• Subway||2,563.15 km 2 (989.64 square miles)|
|• City and state capital||708,127 ( 3. )|
|• Density||2,372 / km 2 (6,140 / sq mi)|
|• Subway||2,412,616 (2nd)|
|Time zone||UTC + 8 (MST)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed|
100xx to 108xx
111xx to 118xx
|Area code (s)||+6042|
|website||www .mbpp .gov .my|
|part of||Melaka and George Town, the historic cities of the Strait of Malacca|
|criteria||Cultural: ii, iii, iv|
|inscription||2008 (32nd meeting)|
|Buffer zone||150.04 ha|
George Town is the capital of the Malaysian state of Penang. George Town is Malaysia's third largest city with 708,127 residents as of 2010, while Greater Penang is the country's second largest metropolitan area after Greater Kuala Lumpur with 2,412,616 residents. The historic core of George Town has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Founded as a company in 1786 by Francis Light of the East India Company, George Town was the first British settlement in Southeast Asia. Along with Singapore and Malacca, George Town was part of the Straits Settlements, which became a British crown colony in 1867. It was subjugated by Japan during World War II before being retaken by the British at the end of the war. Just before Malaya gained independence from the British in 1957, George Town was declared a city by Queen Elizabeth II, making it the first city in the country's modern history.
Due to the blending of the various ethnicities and religions that arrived on its shores, George Town acquired a wide variety of colonial and Asian architectural styles. It also became known as Malaysia's gastronomic capital for its distinctive and ubiquitous street food. In addition, the city is home to a unique cultural heritage such as the Peranakans, whose legacy is still evident in the architecture and cuisine of Penang.
The City of George Town includes the Bayan Lepas Free Industrial Zone, a high-tech production center known as the "Silicon Valley of the East". The city also serves as the financial center of northern Malaysia and the main medical tourism center in the country. Logistically, Penang International Airport connects George Town with several major regional cities, while a ferry service, the Penang Bridge and the Second Penang Bridge, connect the city to the rest of the Malaysian Peninsula. Meanwhile, Swettenham Pier in George Town has become the busiest port of call for cruise ships in Malaysia.
In the 1770s, the British East India Company hired Francis Light Captain, a British Royal Navy, to establish trade relations in the Malay Peninsula. Light then landed in Kedah, a Siamese vassal state threatened by Siam and Burma, as well as an internal Bugis uprising. Aware of this situation, Light established friendly relations with the then Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II, and promised British military protection, while the Sultan offered each other on Penang Island, then part of Kedah.
Although Light later reported the offer to his superiors, it was not until 1786 that he was finally ordered to receive Penang Island from Kedah. The British East India Company sought control of the island as a base for the Royal Navy and a trading post between China and India. To this end, Light negotiated with the new Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah, to cede the island to the British East India Company in exchange for British military aid. After an agreement was signed between Light and the Sultan, Light and his entourage sailed on to Penang Island, where they arrived on July 17, 1786.
The area that Light first landed in, which is now the Esplanade, was originally a swamp covered with thick jungle. After the area was vacated, a simple ceremony was held on August 11th during which the Union Jack was raised. Penang Island was named after heir to the British throne in Prince of Wales Island renamed while the new George Town settlement in honor of King George III. Founded .
Light developed George Town as a free port and enabled merchants to do business without paying taxes or duties. The aim of the policy was to lure traders from the Dutch ports in the region. The number of incoming ships rose from 85 in 1786 to 3,569 in 1802; George Town's population had also grown to 10,000 by 1792.
An appraisal committee was set up in 1800, making it the first ward council in British Malaya. Meanwhile, a Supreme Court was established in Fort Cornwallis in 1808.
In the early 19th century, Penang Island became a center of spice production in Southeast Asia. Spices such as nutmeg, clove and pepper, produced by spice farms across the island, were exported through Penang Harbor in George Town. The spice trade also enabled the British East India Company to cover Penang's administrative expenses.
In 1826, George Town was made the capital of the Straits Settlements, an administrative body also made up of Singapore and Malacca. The capital was then moved to Singapore in 1832, as it had usurped George Town's position as the region's outstanding port.
Even so, George Town retained its importance as a major British entrepreneur. With the opening of the Suez Canal, the advent of steamships and a boom in tin mining on the Malay Peninsula, the port of Penang has become a major tin exporting port. In the late 19th century, when trading companies and banks, including Standard Chartered and HSBC, flocked to George Town, the city also emerged as a leading financial center in Malaya.
Over the century, George Town's population grew rapidly in line with the city's economic prosperity. A cosmopolitan, multicultural population emerged, made up of Chinese, Malay, Indians, Peranakans, Eurasians, Thais and other ethnic groups. However, population growth also caused social problems such as inadequate sanitation and public health facilities, and widespread crime. The latter culminated in the Penang Riots of 1867, in which rival Chinese triads clashed in the streets of George Town.
Also in the same year, the Straits Settlements became a British Crown Colony, ruled directly by the Colonial Office in London. For George Town, direct British rule meant better law enforcement as the police force improved significantly and the secret societies that had previously plagued the city were gradually banned. Further investments have also been made in the city's health and public transport systems.
With improved access to education, greater participation of Asian residents in community affairs, and significant freedom of the press, George Town was perceived as more intellectually receptive than Singapore. The city became a magnet for well-known English authors, Asian intellectuals and revolutionaries, including Rudyard Kipling, Somerset Maugham and Sun Yat-sen.
At the beginning of the First World War in 1914, the Battle of Penang occurred in the SMS Emden , a cruiser of the Imperial German Navy, sank two Allied warships off the coast of George Town. 147 French and Russian sailors were killed.
The Second World War, on the other hand, brought unprecedented social and political upheaval in Penang. In early December 1941, Japanese fighter planes randomly shelled and bombed George Town and wiped out the defending Allied air squadrons. While the British army had previously designated Penang Island as a fortress, Lieutenant General Arthur Percival ordered a retreat from Penang. Not only did the British leave the Batu Maung Fort south of the city, but they also covertly evacuated the European population from Penang, leaving the rest of the population to their fate. Some historians have argued that the withdrawal and silent evacuation of the European population resulted in the loss of the British sense of invincibility and that the collapse of British rule in Southeast Asia occurred in Penang rather than Singapore.
George Town fell to the Japanese Imperial Army on December 19, 1941, marking the beginning of a brutal period of Japanese occupation. Penang Island was named after the then Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo in Tojo-to renamed. This time was known for the massacre of the Japanese Imperial Army of the Chinese people of Penang, which the locals considered Sook Ching were known. Women in George Town were also forced to work as comfort women by the Japanese.
The port facilities of George Town were also used by Nazi Germany as an important submarine base. Between 1942 and 1944 the port of Penang was used by submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Kriegsmarine and the Regia Marina.
Between 1944 and 1945, Indian-based Allied bombers repeatedly bombed George Town to destroy naval facilities and administrative centers. Several colonial buildings were destroyed or damaged, including the government offices, St. Xavier's Institution, the Hutchings School (now the Penang State Museum), and the Penang Secretariat Building. The Penang Strait was also dismantled to impede Japanese shipping.
After the Japanese surrender on August 15, 1945, the Japanese newspaper published Penang Shimbun the Declaration of surrender issued by the Japanese emperor. Under Operation Jurist, the British Royal Marines accepted the surrender of the Japanese garrison in Penang and recaptured the island of Penang on September 3, 1945.
post war period
After a period of military administration, the British dissolved the Straits Settlements in 1946 and merged the Penang Crown Colony with the Malay Union, which was then replaced by the Malaya Federation in 1948. The takeover of the British colony of Penang in Malaya alarmed Penang's people over economic and ethnic concerns. Between 1948 and 1951, the Penang Secessionist Committee was formed to avert the merger of Penang with Malaya.
The British government responded to the concerns expressed by the secessionists by guaranteeing George Town's free port status and by reinstating local elections in George Town in 1951. By 1956, George Town was the first parish in the Malay Federation to be fully elected parish council.
On January 1, 1957, George Town was given city status by Queen Elizabeth II. It became the first city within the Federation of Malaya and, more broadly, Malaysia.
In the years that followed, George Town retained its free port status, guaranteed by the British colonial authorities, before granting Malaya independence. This was not to last - in 1969, the Malaysian federal government revoked George Town's free port status, causing massive unemployment in the city.
This also marked the beginning of George Town's decline, which lasted into the early 2000s. As the Malaysian federal government developed Kuala Lumpur and nearby Port Klang, Penang suffered significant brain drain.
To revive George Town, the Komtar Project was started in 1974. Hundreds of shops, schools and temples and entire streets were demolished to make way for the construction of Penang's tallest skyscraper. Instead of stopping the decline of George Town, Komtar became a white elephant himself in the 2000s.
In 1974, the George Town City Council merged with the Penang Island City Council to form the Penang Island City Council, sparking a decade-long debate over the status of George Town.
The city's decline continued into the early 2000s. In 2001, the Rent Control Act, which had protected low-income residents and smaller businesses in the city center from arbitrary rent increases, was repealed. As a result, residents left the historic core of the city, leaving the colonial-era buildings in disrepair. Meanwhile, incoherent urban planning policies and poor traffic management led to worsening congestion, while decades of skilled brain drain also took their toll as the city lacked the expertise to regulate urban development.
In response, George Town's NGOs and the national press have encouraged public support and formed strategic partnerships to preserve the historic buildings and restore the city to its former glory. As a result of widespread resentment over the demise of George Town, the then federal opposition coalition Pakatan Rakyat (now Pakatan Harapan) was elected to power in the 2008 state elections in Penang.
Also in 2008, George Town was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Later efforts to clean up the city and measures to improve the flow of traffic as well as the cultural and ecological aspects by the new state government led to George Town being ranked the 8th most livable city in Asia by ECA International in 2010. The city's service sector has since been boosted by the private sector and an influx of foreign investors.
The Indian Ocean tsunami that erupted in 2004 struck the west and north coasts of Penang Island, including George Town, killing 52 (out of 68 in Malaysia).
While George Town was declared a city in 1957 by Queen Elizabeth II, the jurisdiction of the city was extended to the entire island of Penang by the Malaysian federal government in 2015.
The George Town jurisdiction covers an area of 305.77 km 2 and includes the entire island of Penang and five of the surrounding islands, including Jerejak Island. George Town has a population density of 2,372 / km 2 just over a third the size of Singapore. This means that the city has one of the highest population densities of any Malaysian city.
The adjacent hotel and resort belts Batu Ferringhi and Tanjung Bungah as well as Tanjung Tokong on the northern beaches of Penang Island form the northwestern edge of George Town. The central hills of Penang Island, including the Penang Hill, serve as a giant green lung for George Town and an important forested drainage area. While the central hills have somewhat limited urban sprawl to the west, the expansion of George Town along the east coast of Penang Island is more evident to the south, creating the suburbs of Jelutong and Gelugor, with the latter merging with the development of Bayan Lepas to the north.
As in most island cities, land scarcity is an urgent problem in George Town. Land reclamation projects have been undertaken to provide lower-lying land in areas of high demand such as Gurney Drive, Tanjung Tokong and Jelutong.
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