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Andhra Pradesh ([aːnd̪ʱrə prəd̪eːʃ] (list)), is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the country's southeastern coast. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city is Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh lies between 12 ° 41 'and 22 ° N latitude and 77 ° and 84 ° 40'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west.
Andhra Pradesh has the second-longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among the states of India. Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna, run across the state. The small enclave (30 square kilometers (12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies in the Godavari delta in the northeast of the state.
The primary official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu with Urdu a common secondary official language in some areas. Other languages often spoken in the state include Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Kannada, and Oriya. According to the 2001 census, 10,281 persons in Andhra Pradesh declare English as their first language.
The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh exceeds $ 100 billion, ranking it third among the states of India. It is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". Andhra Pradesh's GSDP for 2010 was estimated at $ 100.35 billion in current prices and in 2011 it rose to $ 123,560 billion and $ 145,854 billion in 2012-13 placing Andhra pradesh in second place in India in GDP. It holds a position in the Provinces of the world with more than billion dollar GDP. More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006.
On November 1, 1953, the States Reorganization Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State with the already existing Andhra State.
Hyderabad the Capital city of Andhra pradesh was recently declared the second largest city in India, spanning an area of 583 sq kms and having a population of 5,300,000.
 Ancient and medieval history
The first historical records appear in the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya, when what is now Nizamabad and Adilabad districts of the Telangana region constituted parts of the Assaka Mahajanapada (700-300 BCE) An Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE) and Mahabharata (400 BCE). The Natya Shastra written by Bharatha (1st century BCE) also mentions the Andhra people. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Gunturdistrict and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5th century CE.
Megasthenes, a Greek traveler and geographer who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (322-297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their huts or tents near the Godavari River at that time.
Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra (Guntur District) ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as the capital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam / Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to the ancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra)".
The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the 4th century BC. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BC, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land.
During this period, Telugu emerged as a popular language, supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit. Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital city of Vengi. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital was also Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.
The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and led to the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually all the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi SultanGhiyath al-Din Tughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and captured Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years.
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