What does the USSR stand for in Russia?
When and for what was Gorbachev's Nobel Prize received?
On October 15, 1990, the first and only President of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, received the Nobel Peace Prize. The award of the prize to the "man who collapsed the Soviet Union" was met with ambiguous judgments and criticism. What did Gorbachev receive the Nobel Prize for? To clarify this question in detail, it is necessary to highlight the activities of Soviet and Russian politicians, the criteria for awarding the award and the ambiguous reaction in society. In which year did Gorbachev receive the Nobel Prize and for what? We learn in the article.
The last pages of the biography of the Soviet Union
In 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev brought "perestroika" to the market at the head of power. Great changes in the pre-existing ideology, the stable economic and political life of the Soviet Union, were made with the aim of democratizing the sociopolitical and economic system established in the USSR.
In the first phase of the comprehensive reforms, the anti-alcohol campaign, acceleration of the economy, automation and computerization as well as the fight against corruption (demonstrative) and unearned income (real) were carried out. It was planned to provide each family with a separate apartment in order to improve the economic situation in the country. At the 27th party congress, the policy was announced not to "build communism" but "to improve socialism". Radical measures have not yet been applied, so everything in the USSR remained the same as before. Is that the old cadres of the Brezhnev nomenclature have been replaced by new managers who, over time, will be at the forefront of fateful events.
Great reforms in the USSR
The Gorbachev Nobel Prize was not on the horizon when the second phase of perestroika began. The Head of State's team concluded that it is not possible to change the current situation through administrative measures alone. Then an attempt was made to reform in the spirit of socialism and to emphasize its democracy. The stage was marked by a comprehensive reform complex in all areas of life in the USSR.
- The publicity policy lifted the ban on discussing topics that had previously been silenced.
- Private enterprise was legalized (a co-operative movement emerged), companies were founded to operate jointly with foreign companies.
- A new foreign policy doctrine has improved relations with the West.
Against the background of belief in a bright future (especially among the youth, the intelligentsia and the generation tired of two decades of stagnation), the instability gradually began to intensify: the state's economy deteriorated, separatist sentiments emerged the outskirts of the United States and ethnic clashes ensued.
When was there severe destabilization in the Soviet Union?
Why did you give Gorbachev the Nobel Prize? In the third stage of perestroika, it became clear to Soviet society that the political leader was receiving an outstanding distinction at that time. At that time, sharp destabilization was taking place in the USSR, so criticism and ambiguous reactions were expected. The changes got out of control of the official ruling elite, the economic problems escalated into a real crisis, the standard of living of the population fell dramatically, the chronic raw material deficit peaked, the positive reaction of society to restructuring was replaced by disappointment and anti-communist sentiments, and the emigration rate increased. The characteristics of Western capitalism were evident in the socio-economic structure of the Soviet Union: private property, stock and currency markets, and Western business. At the international level, the USSR is losing its position and is no longer a superpower.
Features of the restructuring phase
Post-restructuring restructuring is characterized by a situation where a single state existed "on paper". Indeed, Soviet history came to an end, the collapse of the USSR was only a matter of time. At that time, the Nobel Prize for Gorbachev caused genuine incomprehension among the majority of citizens: a peace prize for crimes against his own people?
In any case, with the collapse of the Soviet economy, the communist system was completely dismantled. In early December 1991, the political leaders of the three Union Republics declared in Belovezhskaya Pushcha that the USSR no longer exists. The central government, led by Mikhail Gorbachev, could no longer oppose these loud statements. The president gives up his authority, and on December 26 of the same year the Soviet Union ceases to exist completely. Mikhail Gorbachev had a serious impact on the situation in the country, but it wasn't always negative.
The consequences of Mikhail Gorbachev's rule
The most controversial period in the history of Russia is associated with the name of Mikhail Gorbachev. He laid the foundation for democracy in the country. This was the reason for the formation of political pluralism - the variety of opinions, trends and views. The beginning of the activity of individual entrepreneurs, the transition to the market economy, major changes in the state apparatus, the formation of opposition movements are associated with the Gorbachev period. The situation of the citizens has deteriorated significantly, there has been a split in the field of intellectuals and artists: talented scientists either went abroad or went into business.
But more important in the question of whether Mikhail Gorbachev's Nobel Prize has been received are his actions and their results in the context of foreign policy. First, he saved the whole world from the threat of nuclear war. It did so by abandoning the USSR's foreign policy positions in favor of the United States. So the Soviet Union lost the Cold War. This victory is officially celebrated in the West.
Second, his politics became the cause of the next reallocation of the world and local conflicts. It was Mikhail Gorbachev's fault that many bloody conflicts took place in Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Lithuania, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan. Most of these acts were not just a reaction to the liberation movements in the republics and peaceful protests, but planned reprisals. This statement is at least supported by the fact that a few days before “black” January the families of Russian officers were taken out of Azerbaijan, the problem of “refugees” was artificially created and the official media claimed that the military would not enter the republic , and the state of emergency will not be imposed.
On the night of January 20, 1990 (and this was the year the Nobel Prize was awarded to Gorbachev) the forty thousandth contingent and the tanks stopped the border and committed unprecedented atrocities and reprisals against the civilian population. The army used prohibited ammunition and shot living people with mortars and tanks. Information communication has been blocked both within the country and with the outside world. In these actions 134 civilians were killed, 700 were injured and 400 were missing. Operation Udar's course was directed by the Interior Minister and the Army General.
Similar events took place in Tbilisi in 1989, Alma-Ata in 1986, Dushanbe in 1990 (again Nobel Prize for Gorbachev), and 1991 in Riga and Vilnius.
For what was Mikhail Gorbachev awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? Of course, he contributed to the unification of Germany, but at the same time it was his policies that destroyed the Soviet Union. The Soviet leader signed an agreement with the United States to reduce the number of medium-range missiles, destroy the Iron Curtain, withdraw troops from Afghanistan, and bring the country out of the Warsaw Pact. In fact, he destroyed the bipolar world. The West liked that, but it had very negative effects on the USSR itself, the successor state and the newly independent Union republics.
What did Gorbachev receive the Nobel Peace Prize for?
Officially, the Nobel Prize was awarded to the Soviet leader for his support in establishing world peace. The October 15, 1990 Nobel Committee Declaration was issued in recognition of Gorbachev's leading role in the peace process. It was not Gorbachev who won the Nobel Prize, but the Foreign Minister, A. Kovalev. His Nobel Lecture will not be awarded until June 5, 1991. This does not conflict with the rules of the Nobel Committee, as the winner must give such a lecture within six months of the award ceremony.
What is the unprecedented decision of the Nobel Committee?
The Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeyevich Nobel Prize has become an unprecedented event. Until then, the award had not been handed over to the head of state. The only exceptions were Egyptian President A. Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister M. Begin. They received an award for a certain achievement, namely the signing of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. US Secretary of State G. Kissinger and Vietnamese Foreign Minister Le Dyh Tho won the Nobel Peace Prize for the armistice between Hanoi and Saigon.
The disagreements over Gorbachev in Russia and in the West
The perception of the first and only President of the USSR in Russia and in the West is radically different. In the western countries he is considered a national hero, liberator and in the eyes of the Russians and residents of the former Soviet republics Mikhail Gorbachev is a person who has brought chaos and years of decline and not the long-awaited freedom and progressive capitalism. For the western world, the threat from the USSR just disappeared with the rise of Gorbachev, while in Russia a leader remembered bringing only years of famine, destruction, the elimination of a huge state and perpetual chaos. No wonder that the Gorbachev Nobel Prize was perceived negatively by the Soviet people.
What did Mikhail Gorbachev talk about in his noble speech?
It is significant that the Gorbachev Nobel Lecture was delivered when there were six months left before the actual collapse of the USSR. After extensive discussions about the world, he turned to the domestic political situation in the USSR. Before Gorbachev came to power, society dwindled in his own words, but there was a positive dynamic after his reforms, which were unsuccessful in some ways. He acknowledged that serious troubles had increased recently in the USSR but promised that reforms would continue and we should expect a quick way out of the crisis. The way out was very close. In six months the country collapsed, and Georgia was almost separated from the Soviet Union at the time of the speech.
Reaction to the award of the award to Mr. Gorbachev
The Nobel Prize for Gorbachev in Soviet society sparked an extremely ambiguous reaction. The people who witnessed the bloody events that followed a peaceful protest did not compare Mikhail Gorbachev at all - the perpetrator of all these horrors and hundreds of dead, crippled citizens. Immediately remembered failed reforms and problems in society.
How did the political leaders of the western world rate the award?
Gorbachev's candidacy was proposed to the Nobel Commission by the German leadership for the position he had taken on the reunification of Germany. Western leaders see the award as a reward for the destruction of the communist regime and for significant economic and political changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Gorbachev destroyed the bipolar world, from which the United States naturally benefited by neglecting the possibility of widespread armed conflict between countries. Now the United States has become the political leader.
What did the Eastern European leaders say?
The political leaders of the Eastern European countries were more cautious in their assessments. The President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czechoslovakia) said that if this award were to bring about a peaceful transition for the Soviet Union to a society of equal people, the government of Czechoslovakia would greatly appreciate it. The Republic of Lithuania recognized that the collapse of communism was precisely related to the name of Gorbachev. Representatives of many other Eastern European countries said the same and expressed the hope for a peaceful solution to the contradictions that had reached their height in Soviet society.
How did the President of the USSR dispose of the funds received?
In addition to the award, Mikhail Gorbachev also received 10 million Swedish crowns. He transferred all this money for the establishment of a hematological center for children in St. Petersburg. It was a project of his wife - Raisa Gorbacheva.
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