How to say lone wolf in Latin

Pre-Socratic philosophy

sophistry

(VS 85) Thrasymachus of Chalcedon

A. Life and teaching

(VS85A1) SUID.
Θρασύμαχος Χαλκηδόνιος σοφιστὴς τῆς ἐν Βιθυνίᾳ Χαλκηδόνος [ὃς πρῶτος περίοδον καὶ κῶλον κατέδειξε καὶ τὸν νῦν τῆς ῥητορικῆς τρόπον εἰσηγήσατο, μαθητὴς [?] Πλάτωνος τοῦ φιλοσόφου καὶ Ἰσοκράτους τοῦ ῥήτορος] ἔγραψε <συμβουλευτικούς, τέχνην ῥητορικήν, παίγνια, ἀφορμὰς ῥητορικάς.>Thrasymachos from Kalchedon, a sophist from Kalchedon in Bithynia, who was the first to show the sentence period and the colon, and who introduced the current type of rhetoric, a student [?] Of the philosopher Plato and the orator Isocrates, wrote symbuleutic speeches, a textbook of rhetoric , Paignia (gimmicks) and an elementary rhetoric.

 

(VS85A2) ARISTOT. Soph. el. 33.183b 29
οἱ δὲ νῦν εὐδοκιμοῦντες παραλαβόντες παρὰ πολλῶν οἷον ἐκ διαδοχῆς κατὰ μέρος προαγαγόντων οὕτως ηὐξήκασι, Τεισίας μὲν μετὰ τοὺς πρώτους, Θρασύμαχος δὲ μετὰ Τεισίαν, Θεόδωρος δὲ μετὰ τοῦτον καὶ πολλοὶ πολλὰ συνενηνόχασι μέρη.

 

(VS85A3) DIONYS. Lys. 6th
μετὰ ταύτας ἀρετὴν εὑρίσκω παρὰ Λυσίᾳ πάνυ θαυμαστήν, ἧς Θεόφραστος [περὶ λέξ. fr. 3 Schmidt] μέν φησιν ἄρξαι Θρασύμαχον, ἐγὼ δ 'ἡγοῦμαι Λυσίαν · καὶ γὰρ τοῖς χρόνοις οὗτος ἐκείνου προέχειν ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ · λέγω δ' ὡς ἐν ἀκμῃ κοινῃ βίου γενομένων ἀμφοῖν · ... τίς δ 'ἐστὶν ἥν φημι ἀρετήν; ἡ συστρέφουσα τὰ νοήματα καὶ στρογγύλως ἐκφέρουσα λέξις, οἰκεία πάνυ καὶ ἀναγκαία τοῖς δικανικοῖς λόγοις καὶ παντὶ ἀληθεῖ ἀγῶνι.

 

(VS85A4) ARISTOPH. Daetales fr. 198, 5ff. [listed: 427 BC. A dialogue between father and son]

1
2
3
4
5

ἦ μὴν ἴσως σὺ <καταπλιγήσει> τῳ χρόνῳ.
- <τὸ καταπλιγήσει> τοῦτο παρὰ τῶν ῥητόρων.
- <ἀποβήσεταί> σοι ταῦτα ποῖ τὰ ῥήματα ·
- παρ 'Ἀλκιβιάδου τοῦτο <τἀποβήσεται>.
- τί δ '<ὑποτεκμαίρει> καὶ κακῶς ἄνδρας λέγεις
καταπλίσσω - bring down (a fencer)
ὑποτεκμαίρομαι - guess, guess under the palm of your hand
τερθρεύομαι - pretend, split hairs

6
7

<καλοκἀγαθεῖν ἀσκοῦντας>; - οἴμ ', ὦ Θρασύμαχε,
τίς τοῦτο τῶν ξυνηγόρων τερθρεύεται;

 

(VS85A5) ARISTOT. Rhet. G 11. 1413a 7

καὶ τὸ τὸν Νικήρατον φάναι Φιλοκτήτην εἶναι δεδηγμένον ὑπὸ Πράτυος, ὥσπερ εἴκασεν Θρασύμαχος ἰδὼν τὸν Νικήρατον ἡττημένον ὑπὸ Πράτυος ῥαψῳδοῦντα, κομῶντα δὲ καὶ αὐχμηρὸν ἔτι.And that Nikeratos is said to be a Philoctetes bitten by Pratys. Thrasymachus used this metaphor because he saw that Nikeratos was inferior to Pratys in the rhapsodic lecture, but was still long-haired and dirty.

 

(VS85A6) ARISTOT. Rhet. B 23. 1400b 19

ὡς Κόνων Θρασύβουλον θρασύβουλον ἐκάλει καὶ Ἡρόδικος Θρασύμαχον "ἀεὶ θρασύμαχος εἶ" καὶ Πῶλον "ἀεπῶ.As Konon Thrasybulos called a 'θρασύβουλος' and Herodicos said to Thrasymachus "you are always 'θρασύμαχος' and to Polos" you are a 'πῶλος' (filling) ".

 

(VS85A8) ATHENS. X 454 F

Νεοπτόλεμος δὲ ὁ Παριανὸς ἐν τῷ Περὶ ἐπιγραμμάτων ἐν Χαλκηδόνι φησὶν ἐπὶ τοῦ Θρασυμάχου τοῦ σοφιστοῦ μνήματος ἐπιγεγράφθαι τόδε τὸ ἐπίγραμμα ·

τοὔνομα θῆτα ῥῶ ἄλφα σὰν ὖ μῦ ἄλφα χεῖ οὖ σάν.
πατρὶς Χαλκηδών ἡ δὲ τέχνη σοφίη.

 

(VS85A10) PLATO de rep. I 336B [in context]

καὶ ὁ Θρασύμαχος πολλάκις μὲν καὶ διαλεγομένων ἡμῶν μεταξὺ ὥρμα ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι τοῦ λόγου, ἔπειτα ὑπὸ τῶν παρακαθημένων διεκωλύετο βουλομένων διακοῦσαι τὸν λόγον · ὡς δὲ διεπαυσάμεθα καὶ ἐγὼ ταῦτ 'εἶπον, οὐκέτι ἡσυχίαν ἦγεν, ἀλλὰ συστρέψας ἑαυτὸν ὥσπερ θηρίον ἧκεν ἐφ' ἡμᾶς ὡς διαρπασόμενος, καὶ ἐγώ τε καὶ ὁ Πολέμαρχος δείσαντες διεπτοήθημεν. ὁ δ 'εἰς τὸ μέσον φθεγξάμενος "τίς, ἔφη, ὑμᾶς πάλαι φλυαρία ἔχει, ὦ Σώκρατες" κτλ. See 338 C [B 6 a].

 

(VS85A12) CIC. Orat. 13, 40

Isocrates ... cum concisus ei Thrasymachus minutis numeris videretur et Gorgias, qui tamen primi traduntur arte quadam verba vinxisse, Thucydides autem praefractior nec satis ut ita dicam rotundus, primus instituit dilatare verbis et mollioribus numeris explere sententias.

 

(VS85A13) DIONYS. Isae. 20th

τῶν δὲ τοὺς ἀκριβεῖς προαιρουμένων λόγους καὶ πρὸς τὴν ἐναγώνιον ἀσκούντων ῥητορικήν, ὧν ἐγένετο Ἀντιφῶν τε ὁ Ῥαμνούσιος καὶ Θρασύμαχος ὁ Καλχηδόνιος καὶ Πολυκράτης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος Κριτίας τε ὁ τῶν τριάκοντα ἄρξας καὶ Ζωίλος ὁ τὰς καθ 'Ὁμήρου συντάξεις καταλιπών ... Θ. δὲ καθαρὸς μὲν καὶ λεπτὸς καὶ δεινὸς εὑρεῖν τε καὶ εἰπεῖν στρογγύλως καὶ περιττῶς ὃ βούλεται, πᾶς δέ ἐστιν ἐν τοῖς τεχνογραφικοῖς καὶ ἐπιδεικτικοῖς, δικανικοὺς δὲ [ἢ συμβουλευτικοὺς] οὐκ ἀπολέλοιπε λόγους, τὰ δὲ αὐτὰ καὶ περὶ Κριτίου καὶ περὶ Ζωίλου τις ἂν εἰπεῖν ἔχοι πλὴν ὅσον τοῖς χαρακτῆρσι τῆς ἑρμηνείας διαλλάττουσιν ἀλλήλων.

 

(VS85B1) <ΠΕΡΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑΣ>. DIONYS. Demosth. 3 [p. 132, 3 Raderm. - Usen.]

τρίτη λέξις ἦν ἡ μεικτή τε καὶ σύνθετος ἐκ τούτων τῶν δυεῖν [αὐστηρὰ υνδ λιτή] · ἣν ὁ μὲν πρῶτος ἁρμοσάμενος καὶ καταστήσας εἰς τὸν νῦν ὑπάρχοντα κόσμον, εἴτε Θρασύμαχος ὁ Καλχηδόνιος ἦν, ὡς οἴεται Θεόφραστος [π. λέξ. fr. 4 Schmidt], εἴτε ἄλλος τις, οὐκ ἔχω λέγειν.οἱ δ 'ἐκδεξάμενοι καὶ ἀναθρέψαντες καὶ οὐ πολὺ ἀποσχόντες τοῦ τελειῶσαι ῥητόρων μὲν Ἰσοκράτης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος ἐγένετο, φιλοσόφων δὲ Πλάτων ὁ Σωκρατικός · τούτων γὰρ ἀμήχανον εὑρεῖν τῶν ἀνδρῶν ἑτέρους τινὰς ἔξω Δημοσθένους ἢ τἀναγκαῖα καὶ χρήσιμα κρεῖττον ἀσκήσαντας ἢ τὴν καλλιλογίαν καὶ τὰς ἐπιθέτους κατασκευὰς βέλτιον ἀποδειξαμένους . ἡ μὲν οὖν Θρασυμάχου λέξις, εἰ δὴ πηγή τις ἦν ὄντως τῆς μεσότητος, αὐτὴν τὴν προαίρεσιν ἔοικεν ἔχειν σπουδῆς ἀξίαν · κέκραται γὰρ εὖ πως καὶ αὐτὸ τὸ χρήσιμον εἴληφεν ἑκατέρας. δυνάμει δ 'ὡς οὐκ ἴσῃ [τῇ] βουλήσει κέχρηται, παράδειγμα ἐξ ἑνὸς τῶν δημηγορικῶν λόγων τόδε ·
"Ἐβουλόμην μέν, ὦ Ἀθηναῖοι, μετασχεῖν ἐκείνου τοῦ χρόνου τοῦ παλαιοῦ [καὶ τῶν πραγμάτων] ἡνίκα σιωπᾶν ἀπέχρη τοῖς νεωτέροισι, τῶν τε πραγμάτων οὐκ ἀναγκαζόντων ἀγορεύειν καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ὀρθῶς τὴν πόλιν ἐπιτροπευόντων · ἐπειδὴ δ 'εἰς τοσοῦτον ἡμᾶς ἀνέθετο χρόνον ὁ δαίμων, ὥστε [ἑτέρων μὲν ἀρχόντων] τῆς πόλεως ἀκούειν, τὰς δὲ συμφορὰς [πάσχειν] αὐτούς, καὶ τούτων τὰ μέγιστα μὴ θεῶν ἔργα εἶναι μηδὲ τῆς τύχης, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἐπιμεληθέντων, ἀνάγκη δὴ λέγειν · ἢ γὰρ ἀναίσθητος ἢ καρτερώτατός ἐστιν, ὅστις ἐξαμαρτάνειν ἑαυτὸν ἔτι παρέξει τοῖς βουλομένοις καὶ τῆς ἑτέρων ἐπιβουλῆς τε καὶ κακίας αὐτὸς ὑποσχήσει τὰς αἰτίας. ἅλις γὰρ ἡμῖν ὁ παρελθὼν χρόνος καὶ ἀντὶ μὲν εἰρήνης ἐν πολέμῳ γενέσθαι καὶ διὰ κινδύνων [ἐλθεῖν] εἰς τόνδε τὸν χρόνον, τὴν μὲν παρελθοῦσαν ἡμέραν ἀγαπῶσι, τὴν δ 'ἐπιοῦσαν δεδιόσι, ἀντὶ δ' ὁμονοίας εἰς ἔχθραν καὶ ταραχὰς πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἀφικέσθαι. καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἄλλους τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἀγαθῶν ὑβρίζειν τε ποιεῖ καὶ στασιάζειν, ἡμεῖς δὲ μετὰ μὲν τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἐσωφρονοῦμεν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς κακοῖς ἐμάνημεν, ἃ τοὺς ἄλλους σωφρονίζειν εἴωθεν. τί δῆτα μέλλοι τις ἂν [ἃ] γιγνώσκει εἰπεῖν, ὅτῳ γε [γέγονε] λυπεῖσθαι ἐπὶ τοῖς παροὲσι καὶ οτῦεο μοτινο οτῦεο μοτιν νοτῦεο μοτιν νοτῦεο μοτιν ὡοτῦεο μοτιν ὡοτῦεο μοτιν ὡοτῦεο αοτιν ἔοτῦεο αοτιν ὡοτῦεο μοτιν ὡτῦτς νοτιν οοτῦεο οτιν οοτοεο μοτιν οττῦς νοτινο ττῦτς νοτιν οτῦεο πρῶτον μὲν οὖν τοὺς διαφερομένους πρὸς ἀλλήλους καὶ τῶν ῥητόρων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἀποδείξω γ 'ἐν τῷ λέγειν πεπονθότας πρὸς ἀλλήλους, ὅπερ ἀνάγκη τοὺς ἄνευ γνώμης φιλονικοῦντας πάσχειν · οἰόμενοι γὰρ ἐναντία λέγειν ἀλλήλοις, οὐκ αἰσθάνονται τὰ αὐτὰ πράττοντες οὐδὲ τὸν τῶν ἑτέρων λόγον ἐν τῷ σφετέρῳ λόγῳ ἐνόντα. σκέψασθε γὰρ ἐξ ἀρχῆς, ἃ ζητοῦσιν ἑκάτεροι. πρῶτον μὲν ἡ πάτριος πολιτεία ταραχὴν αὐτοῖς παρέχει ῥᾴστη γνωσθῆναι καὶ καοινοτάτη τοῖς πολίτνις ᾶοὖσα. ὁπόσα μὲν οὖν ἐπέκεινα τῆς ἡμετέρας γνώμης ἐστίν, ἀκούειν ἀνάγκη λόγων τῶν παλαιοτέρων, ὁπόσα δ 'αὐτοὶ ἐπεῖδον οἱ πρεσβύτεροι, ταῦτα δὲ παρὰ τῶν εἰδότων πυνθάνεσθαι ... "I wish, you Athenians, that I had been part of that old time [and the circumstances of that time] when it was enough for the young to be silent because the circumstances did not compel them to speak and the old ones administered the state properly. But since our fate brought us to such a late time that we listen to others who rule the city, but have to suffer the misfortune on our own body, whereby the worst is not the work of the gods or fate but that of the carers you have to talk now. Because either is insensitive or limitlessly tolerant who continues to surrender himself to anyone who wants to harm him and thus himself provides the pretext for a malicious attack by others. Because enough time has elapsed: instead of peace we have war, we have only reached this day through dangers, satisfied when a day is over, full of fear of the coming, instead of unity we have reached mutual hatred and revolt . The rest of them are driven to arrogance and civil war by the abundance of happiness, but in luck we were prudent, but in disaster we began to race, which usually leaves the rest of us prudent. So why should anyone hesitate to say what he clearly sees when he is suffering from the circumstances and believes that he has something of the kind that nothing of the kind happens any more? First, then, the brawlers among the politicians and the rest: I want to show that in their speeches they make the experience with each other that everyone must have, who let their ambitions run wild without sense and understanding: because in the belief that they are saying opposing things to one another, do not realize that you are doing the same thing and that what others say is included in what you say yourself. Because see from the start what both are looking for! First of all, it causes the traditional state to revolt, although it is extremely easy to recognize and to the greatest extent that it listens to all fellow citizens together. The words of the ancients must be heard about everything that is now beyond our understanding. But what the elderly have experienced themselves, you have to ask those who know ... "

τοιαύτη μὲν οὖν τις ἡ Θρασυμάχειος ἑρμηνεία, μέση τοῖν δρνεῖν καὶ εὔκρατος καὶ εἰς ἀμφφίχατέρους ἀρφιντρντκφἀς ρεφςς ρατῆς ρφςς ραττρφτς.

  1. The two constitutions of the polis:
    • Where does Thrasymachus see the attractiveness of the πάτριος πολιτεία based?
    • Where does he see the deficiencies in the current situation, which is worthy of criticism? "
  2. Look for evidence from the text that Thrasymachus takes a conservative position!
  3. How can the rather conservative attitude of Thrasymachus be reconciled with the general skepticism and relativism of the sophists? [See. typification by Plato]

 

(VS85B2) ΥΠΕΡ ΛΑΡΙΣΑΙΩΝ. CLEM. Strom VI 16 [II 435, 16 St.]

καὶ μὴν ἐν Τηλέφῳ εἰπόντος Εὐριπίδου "Ἕλληνες ὄντες βαρβάροις δουλεύσομεν;" [fr. 719 N.] <Θρασύμαχος ἐν τῷ ὑπὲρ Λαρισαίων> λέγει · <"Ἀρχελάῳ δουλεύσομεν Ἕλληνες ὄντες βαρβάρῳ;">Euripides says in the telephos:
"As Greeks, shall we serve barbarians?" [Fr.719 N.] Thrasymachus says in his speech for the Larisaians:
"We will serve Archelaus as Greeks to a barbarian?"
Thrasymachus encourages the Larisaians to preserve their freedom from the Macedonian king Archelaus.
  1. Can one speak of a "nationalism" of Thrasymachus because of the contrast between Ἕλληνες - βάρβαρος? (-> Wolf II)

 

(VS85B6) PLATO Phaedr. 267c

τῶν γε μὴν οἰκτρογόων ἐπὶ γῆρας καὶ πενίαν ἑλκομένων λόγων κεκρατηκέναι τέχνῃ μοι φαίνεθδη τοὸ φαίς Χνοδη τοὸ τος σνοέ τος. <Ὀργίσαι τε αὖ πολλοὺς> ἅμα δεινὸς ἁνὴρ γέγονε <καὶ πάλιν ὠργισμένοις ἐπᾴδων κηλεῖν>, ὡς ἔφη · διαβάλλειν τε καὶ ἀπολύσασθαι διαβολὰς ὅθεν δὴ κράτιστος. HERMIAS Z. d. St. p. 239, 18 Couvreur ὁ γὰρ Χαλκηδόνιος, τουτέστιν ὁ Θ., Ταῦτα ἐδίδαξεν, ὡς δεῖ εἰς οἶκτον ἐγεῖραι τὸν δικαστὴν καὶ ἐπισπᾶσθαι ἔλεον, γῆρας, πενίαν, τέκνα ἀποδυρόμενον καὶ τὰ ὅμοια.
He showed himself able to arouse many to anger, but were then angry to soothe them again with encouragement

 

(VS85B6a) Plat.Polit. 338c
φημὶ .. ἐγὼ εἶναι τὸ δίκαιον οὐκ ἄλλο τι ἢ τὸ τοῦ κρείττονος ξυμφέρον.I maintain that what is just is nothing other than what is beneficial to the stronger
  1. Place the understanding of this quote in the context of tradition in Plato's state (Book 1)!
  2. Check the compatibility of the legal opinion expressed in the quotation with the statements of the other fragments, especially with 85B1!

 

(VS85B8) HERMIAS z. Plat.Phaedr. p. 239, 21 Couvr. [to sy¡now p. 267c see B 6]
ἔγραψεν <Θρασύμαχος> ἐν λόγῳ ἑαυτοῦ τοιοῦτόν τι, ὅτι <οἱ θεοὶ οὐχ ὁρῶσι τὰ ἀνθρώπινα · οὐ γὰρ ἂν τὸ μέγιστον τῶν ἐν ἀνθρώποις ἀγαθῶν παρεῖδον τὴν δικαιοσύνην · ὁρῶμεν γὰρ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ταύτῃ μὴ χρωμένους>.In one of his speeches Thrasymachus wrote something like this: "The gods do not look at human concerns, otherwise they would not overlook the greatest good in human beings, justice: we see that human beings do not apply them."
  1. Can the concept of justice meant here be the same as that on which 85B6a is based?
  2. Did the sophist Thrasymachus believe in gods or not?
Sententiae excerptae:
Greek to "Thrasymach"
τὸ δίκαιον οὐκ ἄλλο τι ἢ τὸ τοῦ κρείττονος συμφέρον.
The just is nothing else than that which is beneficial to the stronger. (Thrasymachus)


Literature:
to "Thrasymach"
The Att. Eloquence, I-III
Leipzig, Teubner 1868-880; 2 / 1887-1898


Cornelius Nepos and ancient political biography.
Stuttgart: Steiner-Verl.-Wiesbaden-GmbH, 1985 [Historia: individual writings; 47]

Dictionary of the life descriptions of Cornelius Nepos. For school use ed. v. Dr. H. Haacke.

Structure and transparency: a literary analysis of Cornelius Nepos' general vitae.
Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004

Complete dictionary of the biographies of Cornelius Nepos v. Billerbeck, Heinrich Ludwig Julius

School dictionary on the life descriptions of Cornelius Nepos v.Eichert, Otto

De viris illustribus. Selected, introduced and commented on by Ernst-Alfred Kirfel.
Münster: Aschendorff, 10/2010

De viris illustribus: Latin / German - Durchges., Bibliogr. suppl. ed. transl. and ed. by Peter Krafft and Felicitas Olef-Krafft

Cornelius Nepos, Famous Men / arr. by Friedrich Maier
Bamberg: Buchner, 1/2004

Cornelii Nepotis vitae cum fragmentis / ed. Peter K. Marshall
Leipzig: BSB Teubner, 1/1977

Cornelii Nepotis Vitarum concordantia / cur. Regine May - Vol. I: A - M
Hildesheim, among others: Olms-Weidmann, 2006

Cornelius Nepos, explained by Karl Nipperdey. Edited by K. Witte (lat text, comment.)
Hildesheim: Weidmann, 14/2002 = 1913

Famous men: Latin - German = De viris illustribus / Cornelius Nepos. Ed. And transl. by Michaela Pfeiffer with collabor. by Rainer Nickel
Düsseldorf: Artemis & Winkler [Tusculum Collection], 2006

Famous men. with accompanying texts, edit. by Ernst Riege

Cornelius Nepos, with an engl. transl. by John C. Rolfe
Cambridge, Mass. [inter alia]: Harvard Univ. Press [et al.], 1984 [The Loeb Classical Library, 467]

Cornelius Nepos: Latin - German ed. by Gerhard Wirth
Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1994

Famous men. From the Lat. trans. and with an introduction, an introduction, a time table, a list of names. and references vers. by Gerhard Wirth
Munich: Goldmann, 7/1992


Legal Philosophy and Legal Thought in the Age of Sophistics [Greek. Legal Thought II],
Frankfurt / M (Klostermann) 1952


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