What does pithy fruit mean?

Fruit, fruits



English: Fruit
French: Fruit
Italian: Frutta
Spanish: Fruta


Table of Contents

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The term fruit is used in everyday language mostly in connection with the term fruit used. In colloquial language and from a kitchen technology point of view as well as in biological technical language, the term "fruit" is used against different backgrounds.

Colloquial definition

Colloquially, the term "fruit" means a section / part of a plant that can be used by humans. For example, the root of the carrot and the navette, the axis of the plant in the kohlrabi and the grain of the grain are called the fruit. With some types of cabbage or the shallot, the leaves are called fruit. In the case of apples 🛒, the term fruit is used to describe the wall of the ovary that encloses the seeds.

Botanical definition

In the botanical sense one understands by the term fruit always only the wall of the ovary, which encloses the seeds. The fruit is therefore the organ formed from the ovary (the ovary is part of the flower), which encloses the seed or seeds until they are ripe and then serves to spread.

Arises from a botanical point of view fruit therefore from the fertilized flowers. As a result, eggplant, avocado, cucumber, pumpkin, paprika or zucchini, for example, are not only classified as vegetables, but also as fruit. Rhubarb, on the other hand, is only used as a vegetable. From a kitchen technology point of view, fruit is a collective term for the fruits and seeds that are edible for humans and that can usually be eaten raw.

Definition in the food dictionary

As Fruit and fruits In this lexicon, the edible, mostly juicy and fleshy fruits and seeds of cultivated varieties are referred to. These mainly include the fruits of the so-called fruit trees.

etymology

The term "fruit" comes from the Old High German word "ob-az" or "obez" (depending on the source) which means something like "food that goes beyond food (Old High German: azen)", i.e. a "food" which was consumed alongside bread and meat.

Fruits in trade

Fruit that grows in the wild is known as Wild fruit.

Classification of fruit as a useful plant

ingredients

Fresh fruit contains a particularly large amount of vitamins, fiber, fruit acids, fructose, minerals and, in some cases, tannins and amphetamines. It is one of the most valuable foods. Depending on the type, storage and environmental conditions, the content of the ingredients is subject to considerable fluctuations. The mineral content of potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron is particularly high in fruit. Fruits with deep yellow to orange flesh are rich in beta-carotene and folic acid. The vitamin C content is highest in citrus fruits, strawberries 🛒, black currants, kiwis and papayas. Fruits contain fiber with an average proportion of 3.7%. With the exception of the avocado, fruit is very low in fat and protein. The water content, on the other hand, is usually more than 80%. In summary, fruits, along with vegetables, have the highest nutrient density of all food groups and, in relation to their energy content, provide most of the vital nutrients.

Marketing standards

Before fruit can be sold, it has to comply with international trade standards. They set objective standards for evaluation of fruit. Fruits that are unsuitable for consumption or those with significant defects are not permitted for sale as fresh fruit. Fresh fruit is divided into different quality classes based on minimum requirements. This creates a uniform offer that is easier to understand and easier to compare. For the consumer, this also has the advantage of buying goods according to individual quality and price classes. At the same time, the consumer has a handle to complain if the goods offered do not meet the marketing standards.

For fruit species that are important in the European Union, the EC regulation standards. In addition, the types of fruit come from German production Commercial grades. Fruit that is classified according to commercial classes must also correspond to these. In addition, there are those that have been developed since the 1940s UN / ECE marketing standards for fresh fruit and vegetables. The UN / ECE standards and the illustrated explanatory brochure developed by the OECD for this purpose set an internationally recognized reference for the trade in fruit and vegetables. Another marketing standard for fruit and vegetables has been established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission developed. At first it only included tropical and subtropical products, but since 1995 it has been expanded to standardize all types of fruit and vegetables.

Marketing norms scheme

The scheme of the respective marketing standard is always structured uniformly. It does not matter which standard (EC marketing standard, trade classes, UN / ECE or Codex Alimentarius) it is.

Definition of terms

In the definition of the term, the botanical name defines which marketing standard applies to which type of fruit.

Grades

The main element of every marketing standard are the quality classes. They are divided into minimum properties and class criteria.

Minimum properties

Minimum characteristics apply to all classes in the same way. In addition to the minimum properties, the specific requirements apply to the various types of fruit

Characteristics of high quality fruit

Fruit must ...

  • be whole. No part can be missing.
  • be healthy. It must not have any defects or rot.
  • be clean and practically free of any visible foreign matter.
  • be fresh in appearance.
  • be free from pests.
  • be free from damage from pests.
  • be free from abnormal external moisture.
  • be free of any foreign smell and / or taste.
  • carefully picked, packaged and transported.
  • be sufficiently developed.
  • be sufficiently ripe.
  • The development and condition of the fruit must be such that it can withstand handling and transport and arrive in satisfactory condition at the destination.

Class criteria

Fruit is classified according to its quality classes and the occurrence of defects in up to three class criteria.

  • Class extra: The fruit must be of the highest quality, free of dirt and residues and flawless - also in terms of color. In addition, an intact stalk is required.
  • Class I.: The fruit must be of good quality. They may have slight skin defects, be slightly smaller and have a damaged stem. The pulp must be perfectly healthy.
  • Class II: The fruit must be of marketable quality. Errors in shape and color are permitted. The fruit size is prescribed. The fruit may only have minor defects.

Sizing

The size sorting can be determined differently depending on the type of fruit. It is determined according to the transverse diameter, circumference or weight.

Tolerances
Certain tolerances must not be exceeded when it comes to the size classification and the three class criteria.

packaging

The packaging must have sufficient stability and be durable according to the contents, whereby the fruit must be adequately protected by the packaging. The use of paper and stickers is permitted if non-toxic paint or glue is used for the lettering or labeling.

Labelling

The labeling must be affixed to the packaging in legible, indelible writing that is recognizable from the outside.

The label must contain the following information:

  • Packer and / or sender with name and address
  • Product and / or commercial type
  • Country of origin
  • class
  • Control stamp (optional)

In addition, there are other mandatory information on labeling for various products (for example, the size or the variety).

storage

Modern storage methods, which are also used during transport, make it possible today to buy fresh fruit practically all year round, regardless of harvest times. Whether fruit can be stored at all depends on, among other things Harvest time from. Only physiologically ripe fruits may be harvested. This means that the development, i.e. the growth and storage of ingredients, must be completely completed. This point in time essentially depends on whether the fruit is climacteric (after-ripening) or non-climacteric (not after-ripening). Non-climatic fruit is harvested when it is fully ripe or ready for consumption, or at least only a short time before it. The harvest time for subsequent ripening fruit can be harvested for storage at the so-called picking maturity. During storage, these fruits develop until they are ready for consumption.

Airtight, insulated storage rooms, in which an optimal atmosphere and climate is created for each particular type of fruit, automatically maintain optimal storage conditions. Some types of fruit can be stored for up to nine months.

Long storage times make it possible to relieve the trade in times of oversupply and to extend supply times. In addition, a constant supply of fruit to the market is ensured.

The shelf life of fruit is largely determined by the storage temperature, the relative humidity and the composition of the air.

Storage temperature

Even after harvesting, fruits are not dead goods. They also have a metabolism that affects the condition of the fruit. The most important measure to slow down the metabolic processes and thus to extend the shelf life of fruit is to lower the temperature of the storage room. Likewise, the microorganisms that cause putrefaction and spoilage are also restricted in their activity. In addition, low temperatures reduce the activity of enzymes that regulate the metabolism.

There is no such thing as an optimal storage temperature for all types of fruit; rather, each type of fruit has its own optimal storage temperature. Most types of fruit require a moderate temperature of just above zero degrees. There are also a few varieties that can withstand sub-zero temperatures. The optimal storage temperature for tropical fruits, on the other hand, is usually between 10 and 15 ° C.

Relative humidity

The moisture loss of fruit during storage is influenced by the storage temperature, the condition of the skin / peel, the state of ripeness and the relative humidity of the storage room. Most types of fruit require a humidity of around 90%.

Composition of the air

The air consists essentially of 78% nitrogen (N), 21% oxygen (O2), 0.03% carbon dioxide (CO2) and a remainder of noble gases. The CO2 is an extremely important component for photosynthesis for green plants. From CO2 and water they build up carbohydrates with the help of the leaf green (chlorophyll) and sunlight.

For the storage of fruit, the CO2-Content of the storage room is of great importance. Because the metabolic activity of the stored goods can change the natural ratio of CO2 and O2 change. The CO content increases2 through the inhalation of, for example, carbohydrates, fruit acids or free alcohols etc. and at the same time O2 consumed. While through O2-The lack of the fruits suffocate and then taste fermented, causing a CO2 Excess intensifies the mining activities of the fruit. The tissue of the fruit then breaks down and becomes, for example, cotton wool.

In principle, every type of fruit has different requirements for the optimal CO2 : O2-Ratio of internal clearance.

In order to be able to extend the shelf life of fruit (e.g. citrus fruits) further, it is sometimes supplied with a Wax emulsion overdrawn. Among other things, this minimizes weight loss through evaporation and reduces the activity of certain metabolic processes.

When it comes to storage, attention should also be drawn to the plant hormone ethylene. It has a high physiological effect as it accelerates the ripening process without being consumed itself. This property is used, for example, in bananas harvested green. For faster ripening, green bananas are stored in so-called ripening rooms with a slightly increased ethylene concentration and storage temperature.

Due to an increased ethylene concentration, some types of vegetables (e.g. cauliflower or cucumber) age particularly quickly. This is why ripe bananas, pears, apples,, kiwis or avocados, for example, should not be stored together with vegetables.

use

Fruit is an extremely versatile food. In everyday use, it is usually consumed fresh. Fully ripe seasonal fruits from the region are generally the best tasting and have a high proportion of valuable nutrients.

In addition to being eaten raw, fruit is also suitable for boiling down, juicing or for preparing purees 🛒, jams and other spreads. In order to avoid loss of vitamins, chopped fruit should be consumed as quickly as possible. The breakdown of vitamins can be delayed if the crushed fruit is sprinkled with lemon juice and covered in the refrigerator until consumed.

Many fruits, usually citrus fruits, are treated with surface treatment agents, coating agents or preservatives for better storage. To keep citrus fruits, apples 🛒, pears and melons from drying out, their surfaces can also be coated with wax. Since some of these substances are harmful to health, the peel of such surface-treated fruits must not be consumed. In addition, pesticides are mostly used in conventional agriculture. The fruits from organic cultivation are the healthier alternative, as modern pesticides are completely dispensed with.

Summary and brief information

  • Processed cheese, processed cheese preparation and cheese preparation are prepared with fruits
  • Citric acid is used for fruit
  • Fruit juice is made from fruits
  • Savarin is filled with fruits
  • Benzoic acid is used in the production of pickled fruit
  • Cheese products are prepared with fruits
  • Food is classified under fruit
  • Blueberries, berries and aggregate fruits are fruits
  • Monosaccharides and antioxidants are found in fruits
  • Relative humidity and absolute humidity are important when storing fruit
  • Musk strawberry, wild strawberry, strawberry and raspberry is a fruit
  • Pomology is the study of the types and varieties of fruit
  • Lactic acid is produced in fruits
  • Arinto has aromas of yellow fruits
  • Fruit mummy, storage rot and putrefaction affect fruit
  • Fruits are suitable for the protein-reduced diet
  • Fruit is suitable for baking in batter

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